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Adjusting the parallel

The angle of parallel or convergence is the angle formed by the longitudinal imaginary axis of the wheel which is parallel to the longitudinal axis of the car and the ground plane.

If the prolongation of these imaginary lines is cut in front of the axis then they are convergence or and in, if they are cut behind then they are in divergence or by toe out.

If the wheels look inside, they are in convergence and if they look outside, they are in divergence.

It is important to check with perioricity the parallelism of the wheels with respect to the longitudinal axis of the car, it is the main cause of irregular waste and accused on the tires by the outside if the wheels are geometrically in excessive convergence or waste in the inside if they are in excessive divergence.

This effect is also caused if the silentblocks of the original arms are very wasted and in bad condition.

Difference favors more overwinning, while convergence tends to subwinning.

The divergence favors the turn on the curve but gives more inestability on the straight line while the convergence wants to “drive” the car forward and provides a major straight line stability.

How the different angles of fall affect

The angle of fall or change is a parameter of so many others that are taken into account when measuring the geometry of the front and back axes.It is the angle formed by the imaginary line that passes through the longitudinal center of the wheel with respect to the vertical on earth, being 0th the vertical.

Perpendicular fall zero is the reference neutral position, favors the overall stability of the car in all driving conditions.It is the ideal quota for daily use in a normal and regular vehicle to move and make travel.

The positive fall it favours the rotation on the curves, but disadvantages the straight line stability and can lead to greater wear by the outer rotation band.

The negative fall it favours the adherence and maintenance of the curve trajectory but disadvantages the stability in the straight, but disadvantages the curve rotation and can also impact on a greater wear of the tires on the inside of the rolling band.

The negative fall is commonly used in racing cars and the more rotated the circuit by which it runs.
It is also used in drift cars to maintain a good contact surface in these cars that usually have a much more radical turn angle than a serial car.

The measurement of this geometry quota is usually taken expressly in sexagesimal degrees and fractions in minutes seconds, auqnue can also sometimes come in mm.

The perfect adjustment of the falls does not exist, you always have to sacrifice something to win something, you have to look for a specific value suitable for each circumstance in particular.

For daily use cars this value is usually the general standard for all cars (of a very orientative way) between 0 and -1o, for sports applications it is usually going from -1o to -3o.Negative measures are usually very concrete in competition.

All car manufacturers have a recommended measurement table with a few tolerance for everyday use, but it must be the user who has to do more than one test to find out the set up that improves adjusts to their driving style and that is not in any specified table, that’s only the years of driving experience.

camber ajuste

Methods of adjusting falls

The falls can be adjusted in a variety of ways in the cars depending on the morphia and chassis design.Not all cars are susceptible to fall regulation by these methods and each model must be valued in particular, but follow the following image as several examples of possible adjustments:

camber adjustment

  • Regulation for the upper couples:
    Most models whose design is McPherson the original OEM coples can be replaced by adjustable coples
  • Regulation by excentric turns in mango-amortizing anchor:
    Most models whose design is McPherson with an amortisant-manguet double-corn anchor, one of them can be replaced, usually the top by an excentric corn.
  • Regulation by excentric or adjustable thinner:
    Many models incorporate excentric totnillery in the suspension basculating arms to adjust the falls of origin and if they do not carry it from origin you can find on the market adjustable arms kits in varied forms according to the car model.
  • The Roll Center or Roll Center:
    There are some models that originally can incorporate a regulation mechanism and if it is not possible to find on the market a roll-center kit that varies the axis geometry that gives the fall between the upper and lower spherical joints of the same wheel.

Adjusting the angle of advance

The angle of advance (pivote, caster) is the angle of the direction movement seen from the lateral.It also provides a certain center effect when driving on a straight line.

An example of a positive advance angle led to the end is a chopper-type motorcycle in which its direction axis is "backed" in the angle of the front bricks.

An example of extreme negative advance angle (none ideal in racing competition) are the front wheels of a shopping cart.The wheels of the cart are "arrayed" behind the direction's pivot point, often oscillating and being very unstable.More positive advance angle prints more self-centrated, which can be good if you just seek stability.


A added effect, and more importantly, is that the advance angle also affects the fall (camber) when wheels turn.More angle of positive advance implies more negative fall in the curve outer wheels.This allows the option to configure in the setup less static fall(*) and more advance angle to get the ideal fall angle.

Equally important is the way the positive advance angle affects the fall of the inner wheels.The indoor wheels will lose some of their static negative fall and probably even go to having positive fall, which is ideal for curved indoor wheels.The side effect of increasing the angle of advance is its ability to reduce static falls.Negative falls only help the external wheels on a curve, and have a negative effect on the traction of the internal wheels on a curve and on both wheels when accelerating or braking.The more fall of the wheels can replace with an advance angle, the better will be the traction of your front wheels in all situations.

The adjustment of the angle of advance is a little more complex than the fall, it has to be measured with more complex tools while the fall can be measured with a plum.Therefore, it is recommended that such measurement be done by a specialized technical service.

The adjustment of the advance by being more complex there are fewer mechanisms to be regulated than the falls, there are some caster kits in the form of adjustable dragers, roll center kits and then there are the 3D coples that adjust both coats.

The fall adjustment only separately does not usually affect the advance, but the advance adjustment if it usually affects the fall, with which, to the extent possible, it is advised to always adjust the advance, then the fall and finally the parallel.Never the reverse.

Other Angles of Geometry

There are other angles of geometry that have more complexity than those here exposed, such as for example the spin angle, the spin radio, the push angle, the output angle or pivot ... among others, but those meditations require professional measurement systems and in addition to using more in professional competitions, the most important thing is to have clear the three main measurements, the parallel, the hike and the advance.