Definition of amortization:
Amortigation practically means receiving, absorbing and mitigating such a force, either because it has dispersed or because the energy has transformed so that the initial force has been minimized.The better the amortization of the initial force, the lower the force received on the final point.
The function of the amortisers in the vehicles is to transform the kinetic energy of the oscillations accumulated in the mole or resorts (as a result of the irregularities of the ground) into heat energy and this, in turn, dissolves it into the air.
The movement of the piston of the amortisator A is solidary to the carrossery of the vehicle (substantiated mass) and the body of the amortisator C is solidary to the non-substantiated mass, among these two elements a piston is placed that slides by an inner cylinder of the amortisator and that carries incorporated a block of Vávulas B that doses the passage of a fluid of oil character.
This oil step from one camera to another D is made forced, i.e., by making a high-pressure fluid pass by a small hole calibrated through a plate valve system, a resistance to the passage is created, in this case it is a resistance force that opposes the oil passage from one camera to another, braking the oscillations of the mole.
In the case of gas amortizers, these incorporate a second floating E piston that separates the D fluid camera from the F pressed gas camera, gas amortizers have better performance and efficiency than those that are just hydraulic.
Having a gas element introduced stainlessly and under pressure, it obliges the fluid to remain always under pressure and decreases until it practically eliminates the formation of bubbles by the heating of the amortisator oil, since although it does not seem, they reach high temperatures and is the critical point when amortisators begin to lose effectiveness and originate dead points in the amortisator race.
Types of amortizers
Depending on its characteristics there are several types of amortisers on the market, each car and each user is a different world and therefore there are many classes taking into account the needs of each user.
Logically a luxury and/or high performance sport will not carry the same type of suspension as a simple utility, we will not extend ourselves too much because it is not the goal of this tutorial, there are many systems and each brand can use its own patent, but as an example we will quote:
For its shape, there are interchangeable cartridges, telescopic, McPherson bottles, electronically self-leveled suspension, pneumatic amortizator, Hydrolastic suspension, hydraulic suspension etc
For its architecture, there are two main types, bitubo and monotubo
For the elements used in their interior, there are hydraulic, there are mixture of gas and oil and there are only gas (neumatic) but these are mainly used in industrial vehicles for their complexity and high cost.
By the elastic suspension system associated: it can incorporate mole as in the case of the McPherson bottles, it can be independent with helicoidal mole, with tortion bar, by ballest, or it can be roasted body to adjust the height of the carrossery.
They can be comfortable (mixed), sports (hard) or intermediate
By the way of regulating the tarat, they can be fixed or adjustable tarat If they are adjustable tarat, they can be by click valve, by points, regulated either manually or managed electronically from a central in the vehicle.
For its dynamic operation, it can be linear and progressive or self-adaptative (more comfortable at low speeds and harder at high speeds)
For their benefits, they can be classified among those that are of original benefits and those that are of high benefits (sport and for competitions)
Symptoms of defective amortizers
The amortisator, as an active safety element of the car, must be reviewed every certain time, since with the use and the passage of time it loses effectiveness due to the wear by its use.
The normal thing is to check the amortisers every 20,000 km or once a year, or every two years if it’s a few kilometers.You can check the status of them in your usual workshop if you are confident, but if you want a diagnosis with a more detailed and objective report you can go to a diagnosis center, which has a suspension bank that measures the status, effectiveness and balance of each wheel.
There is also the possibility that you can take it to an ITV center, taking advantage of whether the technical review is around the corner because it falls soon.They have a suspension bank that measures such parameters.
You have to take very much into account that the amortisator is an element that has a very slow and progressive waste, gradually goes losing effectiveness and the driver does not perceive such loss, by put an example: If they pass 5 or 6 years, we will not realize the passage of the days we are aging, but if we look at a photo our that we did those years back, we will realize that yes we have aged something, but in the day-to-day we don’t realize.
Something similar happens to the amortisator and therefore you have to make a technical radiography to review your state.The symptoms that can be detected when an amortisator is in bad condition are the following:
- The carrossery heads excessively when braking or accelerating.
- A sense of flacidity and insecurity.
- The carrossery balances laterally excessively when taking the curves.
- The emergency braking distance is greater, especially in wet.
- The direction of the vehicle becomes more soft, slower in response and more inaccurate
- Pneumatics are unregulated by the outer side of the pneumatic, with solid and traction loss.
- Destroyed amortisers cannot guarantee us a safe and adequate contact of the tires with the road surface, that’s why handling conditions deteriorate, and that’s why driving becomes dangerous.
- Fluid leaks through the retention, spots and/or oil humidities around the guardapolves foil indicate that the amortisant may be revented.